State threats are anything that can harm or weaken a country. In general, state threats are divided into two forms: military and non-military.
Law No. 3 of 2002 states that military threats are forms of threats to use armed force that threaten the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state, as well as the integrity of the nation.
The following are the forms of military threats:
1. Acts of Terror
Terrorism is an attempt to create fear, terror, and cruelty by a person or group. In practice, terrorism is carried out by those who have been trained or trained in the military. Indonesia itself has also not been spared a number of terrorist acts, whether carried out by its own domestic network or international terrorist networks.
2. Armed rebellion
Armed rebellion is resistance to state authority. Disagreement with authority is manifested by taking up arms to undermine the authority that opposes it. Since independence, Indonesia has faced several insurgencies.
Aggression is a threat in the form of the use of armed military force of one state against another state. An example is the second Dutch military aggression which attacked Yogyakarta in 1949.
4. Land violation
Territorial violations are actions that threaten the territorial integrity and sovereignty of the state and endanger the nation within the state. Territorial violations can occur through the use of aircraft or ships. For example, the rampant activity of Chinese fishing boats entering Indonesian waters at Natuna.
Espionage is the activity of espionage with the aim of searching for as much information as possible, in any way to find the weakness of the country. To obtain or obtain confidential documents that other countries want. The act of espionage is very secretive and rarely known.
Vandalism is the act of damaging facilities and objects vital to causing chaos. Vandalism is done quietly, covertly, and deliberately and can have a significant psychological impact.
7. Civil War
A civil war is a conflict between groups of people who use weapons. Indonesia has experienced civil wars in a number of places, sparked by religious sentiments in Ambon.
This threat threatens the state ideology of Pancasila which directly threatens the integrity of the country. Ideologies that threaten communism include socialism and liberal capitalism.
Political threats can be used to apply political pressure on a country. Historical experience has indicated that political threats can topple a country’s system of government.
The economic condition of a country determines the country’s defense power. Therefore, economic threats also affect the integrity and existence of the state. Threats with economic dimensions are divided into internal, such as inflation, unemployment, etc., and external threats in the form of poor economic performance, low competitiveness, dependence on other countries, and readiness to face the era of globalization.
4. Social and cultural
This is a threat in the form of social issues such as poverty, ignorance, underdevelopment and injustice that will provoke horizontal and vertical conflicts.
This kind of threat is caused by the rapid development of technology. These developments led to the disappearance of barriers and distances so that everyone could access information, whether it was true or false. The Arab Spring in 2011 can be an example of how information technology can threaten a country or the ruling system of a country.